Plant of the week: Broccoli

Got milk?  How about broccoli instead?  Broccoli has as much calcium in it as the equivalent weight in milk, plus it contains phytochemicals, folic acid, phosphorous, fiber, calcium, iron, and vitamins A, B2, B6, and C.  Plus, it’s delicious.

Ideal growing conditions

Broccoli is a cold weather plant, which means it is generally grown in the spring and/or fall, and timed so that it matures when the weather is cool.  If exposed to too much heat, it will bolt and produce a showy array of pretty yellow flowers.

Start broccoli indoors 4-6 weeks before the last frost date, then transplant the seedlings into rich, slightly acidic soil that retains water and gets at least 6 hours of sun.  Space the seedlings at least a foot apart.

Broccoli is prone to several pests such as cabbage worms and aphids; place floating row covers over your plants to protect them.  It can also be grown in very large containers — 5 gallons or larger is best.

Broccoli tolerates frost and can live in temperatures as cold as -12 Celsius.  Its growth is accelerated after a frost.

Types

  • Calabrese broccoli is the kind of broccoli you see in the store.  It’s named after the Italian province of Calabria, where it was first grown.  Its stalks are topped by a compact head containing clusters of green florets.
  • Sprouting broccoli has multiple small green or purple heads that branch of its main stalks.
  • Chinese broccoli, or gai-lon, is smaller and darker than western broccoli.  It doesn’t produce heads; the whole plant is eaten, including the flowers.  The flavour is stronger and may be bitter.
  • Broccoli rabe, or rapini, is actually a separate species.

 

 

 

 

Harvesting, using, and preserving

Cut broccoli heads before the flowers have opened, when the individual buds are the size of pin-heads, dark green or purple-tinged, and tightly closed.  Cut them in the morning before it is hot.

After the main head has been harvested, the plant may grow more heads on side-shoots.

Broccoli can be refrigerated for up to a week, or blanched and frozen.  It’s delicious when lightly steamed, eaten raw, or added to soups and dishes.

 

Friends

  • Beets
  • Carrots
  • Celery
  • Chives
  • Cucumber
  • Dill
  • Garlic
  • Lettuce
  • Onions
  • Potatoes
  • Spinach

Foes

  • Beans
  • Peppers
  • Squash
  • Strawberries
  • Tomatoes

Fun facts

  • Thomas Jefferson brought broccoli to America; he imported broccoli seeds from Italy to America and planted them in his own garden in 1767.

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