Eggplants (also known as aubergines) belong to the nightshade family, along with peppers and tomatoes. Although they’re not that flavourful by themselves, they are great when added to spicy dishes, or marinated and grilled. Eggplants are a good source of vitamin C, iron, potassium, and fiber.
Ideal growing conditions
Start seedlings inside 6-10 weeks before the last frost date. Ensure that the seeds are only lightly covered with soil. After the final frost, begin to harden off the plants, then transplant them into your garden or large pots, spacing plants at least two feet apart. Eggplants like warm, sunny, well-drained soil that is slightly acidic. Adding composted manure to the soil will make your plants happy.
Water the plants regularly, but don’t drench them or let them sit in water. Some varieties of eggplants may require supports, such as tomato cages or stakes.
Eggplants come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and colours. As a general rule, light-coloured varieties are less bitter than dark purple varieties.
- American (aka Globe) eggplants are the largest variety. Their large size and meaty texture makes them ideal for grilling.
- Italian eggplants are smaller, thinner, and sweeter than Italian eggplants, but otherwise they’re quite similar in appearance. Both American and Italian varieties are usually deep purple.
- Chinese and Japanese eggplants are smaller and thinner, which makes them ideal for stir-fries. They’re also a lighter purple than their American and Italian cousins.
- Indian eggplants are shaped more like tomatoes. They are often cubed and stewed, cooked whole, or used to make sauces.
- Thai eggplants are quite tiny compared to their counterparts, and quite a lot more bitter. They come in a variety of colours, although they are often green. They’re commonly used in curries.
Harvesting, using, and preserving
Eggplants are ready to pick when they stop growing, and their skin becomes glossy. You’ll know for sure that they’re ripe when you cut them open and their seeds are mature and light-coloured (rather than hard and dark). Harvest them by cutting their stems with pruners. There’s no easy way to break them off without damaging the plant. Regular picking will encourage more fruits to grow.
Like avocados, eggplants begin to discolour as soon as they’re cut, but lemon juice, vinegar, or salt can prevent them from darkening too much.
Eggplants generally are eaten cooked rather than fresh. Try them grilled, in baba ghanoush, veggie burgers, stir fries, ratatouille, moussaka, and more.
To freeze eggplants, peel and slice them, then blanch or roast the slices and place them in ice water to cool. After the slices have cooled, drain the water off and place them in freezer bags. Eggplants can also be dehydrated or canned, or chopped and placed in a mason jar of oil and refrigerated.
- Eggplant contains the highest amount of nicotine found in any vegetable! Yuck! You’d have to have eat about 20 lbs them to get as much nicotine as what’s found in a cigarette, though, so don’t worry.
- Not all eggplants are purple–some white varieties resemble goose eggs–hence the name.