Fall gardening chores

Freezing temperatures signal an end to most of the vegetables, fruits, and herbs in a typical garden.  What to do with all of this newfound free time?  There are a few things you can do to prepare your garden for the next growing season.

Recycle your leaves

Rake up the leaves that fall on your property (or get some from a neighbour).  Leaves are an excellent soil amendment; they improve water retention and soil structure.  If you’ve ever dug up a pile of decomposing leaves, you’ll notice that they’re full of earthworms–which are your garden’s best friends.  Leaves also foster microorganisms that are beneficial to healthy, nourishing soil.

There are a couple of ways to add leaves to your soil:

  • Dig a thin layer of leaves into your garden.  Ensure that they’re not packed together, and they’re covered with a thin layer of soil or compost.  Thick layers of leaves tend to stick together like stacks of pages, and not decompose.
  • Put your leaves in your compost pile.  They should decompose within a year as long as they are not allowed to dry out.  Leaves need to be kept moist in order to break down.

In either case, you can expedite the process by shredding the leaves with a lawnmower or shears.

Dig up your compost

Empty out your compost bin, and spread the fully or partially decomposed matter on your empty garden beds.  The material will continue to decompose over the winter and into spring, adding nutrients to the soil.

Return to the compost bin the material that is still fairly intact and new, such as the plants that recently succumbed to the frost.  These plants will continue to break down over the course of the winter and into the new year, in time to be added to your garden the next fall.

Cut back perennials

Most vegetables are annuals or biennials, but some vegetables (and many flowers) are perennials.  Once the cold weather has killed their above-ground growth, you may want to cut them back down to the root, and put the plant matter into the compost.  If you use a cold compost system, avoid putting seeds into the compost, as they may germinate once the compost is moved to the garden.


DIY vegetable stock

Vegetable stock is easy to make, and tastes so much better than store-bought varieties.  You can use vegetables you might otherwise not eat, such as carrot ends, squash peelings, and celery leaves.  Many stocks are made using onions, carrots, celery, mushrooms, tomatoes, and garlic, as well as black pepper, bay leaves, and thyme.  Use other spices and herbs sparingly, as their flavours may be overpowering.  Avoid starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn, which make the liquid cloudy, and vegetables that have strong or bitter flavours (such as brassicas).  Experiment with different recipes, based on your preferences, and what you have available.

To make vegetable stock

  1. Chop vegetables small, and brown them slightly.
  2. Add cold water.
  3. Gradually heat the mixture up until it almost boils.
  4. Reduce heat and simmer for an hour or so.
  5. Cool broth, then strain it through cheese cloth or a sieve.
  6. Use it immediately, or freeze it in small containers.


Food waste: A global problem

What percentage of the food produced for human consumption is discarded?  Would you guess 40%?  That’s a lot of wasted resources– the food itself, and the water, nutrients, land, chemicals, and labour used to produce it.

A staggering 40 per cent of the food produced in the developed world (and 30 per cent worldwide) is never consumed. It’s food that’s discarded from farm to fork, tossed in the field because it’s not the right size or shape, cycled through stores and restaurants, and chucked out of every single family’s home refrigerator. In fact, half of the estimated US$1 trillion worth of food the UN says is discarded each year is the wilted lettuce and expired milk that’s dumped by consumers, with another 20 per cent tossed by grocery stores and restaurants. Dana Gunders, a scientist at the U.S. National Resource Defense Council (NRDC), found $150 billion worth of edible food ends up rotting in American landfills and producing methane, a greenhouse gas 20 times more damaging than CO2. Meanwhile, food production uses 80 per cent of all fresh water consumed in the U.S. If food waste were a country, it would be the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, after China and the U.S., and a major contributor to global warming. (source)

In Canada, $31B worth of foods ends up in landfills or composters each year.

The average Canadian household waste $31 a week, that translates into $1,600 per year. A tragedy any way you look at it especially given close to 900,000 Canadians and 37% of those being children or youth rely on the assistance of food banks each month. Asked why so much food is wasted, the typical responses included:
1. Food goes bad too quickly (57%).
2. It’s past its expiration date (44%).
3. Cooked too much (19%).
4. Do not finish their meals (11%) (source)



An Average Household’s Food Waste in a medium sized Ontario Municipality

(Massow and Martin, n.d.)

bar graph


Growing solutions

  • Grow vegetables, fruits, and herbs that thrive in your region, and pick them as needed, rather than buying set quantities and discarding the extras or those that perish.  Preserve what you don’t use.  Reduce the market for imported produce that can be grown locally (vote with your wallets!).
  • Share with your friends, family, and neighbours.  Have too many carrots?  Donate some to a food bank, or swap some for a neighbour’s beans.
  • Compost your plants and kitchen scraps; the nutrients will feed future plants!
  • Buy perishables to fulfill recipes rather than to “stock up.”
  • Anyone else have any ideas to share?

Composting 101

Most Canadian municipalities now offer curbside collection of yard and kitchen waste.  Some even allow you to pick up free bags of compost in late spring.  So why make your own compost onsite?  Aside from avoiding the costs associated with purchasing compost, you can control what’s feeding your plants.

Composting kills many of the weeds, seeds pests, and diseases that may be present in your food and garden waste, but it retains most of the nutrition.  It’s recycling at its finest!

But compost stinks, doesn’t it?  And it attracts maggots?

You can avoid having stinky and maggot-infested compost by excluding animal products (meat and dairy) from your compost.  Eggshells are fine.

Many of the commercially available compost containers are made of plastic, which contains vents but are not very breathable.  The compost does tend to smell when you open the lid.  Once the lid is closed, they’re usually fine.

If you place your compost in a container made of wood or other natural materials that are spaced to allow air flow, and add grass clippings or other yard waste over any particularly fresh kitchen scraps, it should not smell.  You may also want to avoid using manure as an activator (see more in hot composting, below).

But I don’t have a backyard

Worm farms are great.  The worms can’t eat all of your compost, but they can eat some of it.  They’ll create beautiful dark earth for you.  They don’t smell and you don’t need to take them for walks.  You may be able to purchase worm farm kits locally.

Types of composting

There are two main types of composting: cold and hot.  Cold composting is basically the “throw in what you have” method.  The compost does not heat up enough to cause rapid decomposition, so some weeds seeds may not be killed, and the process takes longer.  Hot composting is like making a lasagna; you have to have enough ingredients on hand to make one set of layers, because you don’t want to cook it with the sauce on the top.  If properly assembled and monitored, it will typically produce compost in two months rather than the year or more needed for cold compost.

The specific details of how much material you should add will vary according to the type of container and composting you choose.  As always, what follows are guidelines.

Cold composting

Cold composting is the easier option, and it also produces more fertile soil than hot composting, because the material does not get hot enough that all of its nutrients are broken down.  Some are retained and then released when the compost is added to the garden.  Worms find their way into the compost to help break down cold compost material.  To accelerate decomposition, consider cutting materials into small pieces.

The layers are simple:

  1. On the bottom, add sticks to let ait infiltrate the compost.
  2. Follow this by garden waste, grass clippings, and kitchen waste as they are produced.
  • You can add straw, or straw-like plants, to aid with air circulation.
  • You can add manure to the compost to act as an activator to increase heat (and therefore the rate of decomposition).

Once or twice a year, turn the pile to improve decomposition.  I use two side-by-side wooden compost bins, so I turn them in the fall once the garden is almost empty, and often in the spring.  One bin contains last year’s compost, and the other one contains the current year’s compost.  Both are at least half full when I turn them.

Turning does not involve rotating the bins, but its contents. I transfer the intact plant material from the first bin to the second, removing the composted dirt and putting that in the garden.  Then I move the intact plant material from the second bin into the first bin, adding a bit of composted dirt between layers, and move the rest of the composted soil from the second bin to the garden.  I am left with one full bin of rotated compost and another that is empty and ready to accept new spoils.

Hot composting

Hot composting relies on manure to heat compostable materials up so that they break down quickly and thoroughly.  Roots and woody materials are thoroughly broken down, and weed seeds and diseases destroyed.  Hot composting is not an ideal solution for small lots because when manure is exposed to high temperatures, ammonia is released into the air.  In other words, it can be smelly.

The layers are more complex.  You must complete steps 2-5 each time you top up the compost.

  1. On the bottom, add sticks to let ait infiltrate the compost.
  2. Add 4-6 inches of rich green organic matter, such as grass clippings and kitchen waste.
  3. Add 1 inch of cow, sheep, or horse manure.
  4. Add 1 inch of soil.
  5. Add 4-6 inches of brown organic material, such as straw.
  6. Repeat steps 2-5, ensuring that 5. is always on the top.
  7. Once the material has begun to decompose, don’t add any additional layers.  Check the temperature, which should be between 54C and 60C.  If it gets waterlogged, cover it with a waterproof tarp.  If it is too dry, water it.
  8. When the temperature drops, turn the pile.
  9. Repeat the process until it is decomposed.

Seed starter

You can use your compost to create soil to use to start your seeds.

Remove some of the compost you created, and set it in a pile for at least a year.  Store it in cloth or burlap bag for the winter in a cold room or root cellar so that it retains its moisture.  You may wish to run it through a sieve before you use it to remove any sticks or large particles.

The good stuff

As a kid, at least once a year we were visited by my great aunt, who would arrive at the farm with several burlap bags and a huge smile on her face. She’d rub her hands in excitement about receiving what she called “the good stuff.” To the uninitiated, the good stuff was the beautiful black earth that had spent a year or so cooking its original ingredients, which were mainly cow manure and straw, with some wood shavings, horse manure, and sheep manure thrown in for good measure. Now, as an adult, I know why she was so excited. It’s almost impossible to find the good stuff on the market.

The dirt

Manure has been called the “black gold” of the gardening world. It contains a rich and wide variety of minerals and nutrients, and provides abundant amounts of the three chemicals your plants need the most: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It improves the condition of the soil so it is better able to hold moisture, and it promotes better root growth.
Composted manure can be purchased from your garden centre, or you can compost your own if you know (or are) a friendly famer. You should never use it fresh, because it can damage your plants. Add composted manure to your garden in the fall.
Rabbit manure is the best for gardens, followed by sheep and goat manure, then cow and horse manure. You may find the selection at your local garden centre limited to sheep and cow manure.

Leaf mold

If you don’t have access to manure, you can enrich your soil using leaf mold. In the fall, rake up your leaves and place them in a wire bin. Keep the leaves damp, at least until winter takes that process over for you. Fungus will break down the leaves into leaf mold, which you can use as mulch or mix into the soil, depending upon whether the leaves have partially or completely decomposed.

Liquid organic feeds

Liquid organic feeds are useful for container gardening, and when you notice that a plant is not doing well. Ideally, the earth should be sufficiently fed with compost before sowing so that it is not necessary to supplement your plants.
  • Compost tea: Put a cloth bag of compost that has reached the finished stage (is rich, dark, soil) into a bucket or garbage can full of water, and leave it for a few days. Apply the compost as mulch for the garden, and water down the tea until it is the colour of weak tea before applying it to your plants. It may burn them if it is too strong.
  • Fish emulsion is an all-purpose fertilizer, which contains nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous. You can buy it at your local gardening centre.

Fun fact

Apparently, bird manure is the most valued of all. In the Middle Ages, many Europeans kept pigeon lofts on top of their houses, eating the birds and using the manure to fertilize gardens and fields.
We’ll talk more about composting plant matter later.